Wednesday, April 23, 2008

The First Scientist!

Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham was the first person to test hypotheses with verifiable experiments, developing the scientific method more than 200 years before European scholars learned of it—by reading his books.

To test his hypothesis that "lights and colors do not blend in the air," for example, Ibn al-Haytham devised the world's first camera obscura, observed what happened when light rays intersected at its aperture, and recorded the results in what would become Kitab al Manazir (Book of Optics). Ibn al-Haytham conducted this and other experiments investigating the properties of light during a ten-year period when he was stripped of his possessions and imprisoned as a madman in Cairo.

How Ibn al-Haytham came to be in Egypt, why he was judged insane, and how his discoveries launched the scientific revolution are just some of the questions answered in Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, the world's first biography of the Muslim scholar known in the West as Alhazen, Alhacen, or Alhazeni.

Abdul Jabbar Al-Shammari, the director of the Ibn al-Haitham Center for Science and Technology in Amman, Jordan, writes: "I enjoyed reading about the events in the life of the famous scientist, Ibn al-Haitham. I congratulate you on writing a fantastic and accurate book.”
E. Salik of Los Angeles writes: "I recently read Steffens' book on Ibn al-Haytham. This is one of the best books I have ever read. His comments on historical data are commended."

Science !

What is science?

Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding1. It is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural processes under controlled conditions.
Consider some examples. An ecologist observing the territorial behaviors of bluebirds and a geologist examining the distribution of fossils in an outcrop are both scientists making observations in order to find patterns in natural phenomena. They just do it outdoors and thus entertain the general public with their behavior. An astrophysicist photographing distant galaxies and a climatologist sifting data from weather balloons similarly are also scientists making observations, but in more discrete settings.

The examples above are observational science, but there is also experimental science. A chemist observing the rates of one chemical reaction at a variety of temperatures and a nuclear physicist recording the results of bombardment of a particular kind of matter with neutrons are both scientists performing experiments to see what consistent patterns emerge. A biologist observing the reaction of a particular tissue to various stimulants is likewise experimenting to find patterns of behavior. These folks usually do their work in labs and wear impressive white lab coats, which seems to mean they make more money too.
The critical commonality is that all these people are making and recording observations of nature, or of simulations of nature, in order to learn more about how nature, in the broadest sense, works. We'll see below that one of their main goals is to show that old ideas (the ideas of scientists a century ago or perhaps just a year ago) are wrong and that, instead, new ideas may better explain nature.

So why do science? I - the individual perspective
So why are all these people described above doing what they're doing? In most cases, they're collecting information to test new ideas or to disprove old ones. Scientists become famous for discovering new things that change how we think about nature, whether the discovery is a new species of dinosaur or a new way in which atoms bond. Many scientists find their greatest joy in a previously unknown fact (a discovery) that explains something problem previously not explained, or that overturns some previously accepted idea.

That's the answer based on noble principles, and it probably explains why many people go into science as a career. On a pragmatic level, people also do science to earn their paychecks. Professors at most universities and many colleges are expected as part of their contractual obligations of employment to do research that makes new contributions to knowledge. If they don't, they lose their jobs, or at least they get lousy raises.

Scientists also work for corporations and are paid to generate new knowledge about how a particular chemical affects the growth of soybeans or how petroleum forms deep in the earth. These scientists get paid better, but they may work in obscurity because the knowledge they generate is kept secret by their employers for the development of new products or technologies. In fact, these folks at Megacorp do science, in that they and people within their company learn new things, but it may be years before their work becomes science in the sense of a contribution to humanity's body of knowledge beyond Megacorp's walls.

Why do Science? II - The Societal Perspective
If the ideas above help explain why individuals do science, one might still wonder why societies and nations pay those individuals to do science. Why does a society devote some of its resources to this business of developing new knowledge about the natural world, or what has motivated these scientist to devote their lives to developing this new knowledge?
One realm of answers lies in the desire to improve people's lives. Geneticists trying to understand how certain conditions are passed from generation to generation and biologists tracing the pathways by which diseases are transmitted are clearly seeking information that may better the lives of very ordinary people. Earth scientists developing better models for the prediction of weather or for the prediction of earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are likewise seeking knowledge that can help avoid the hardships that have plagued humanity for centuries. Any society concerned about the welfare of its people, which is at the least any democratic society, will support efforts like these to better people's lives.

Another realm of answers lies in a society's desires for economic development. Many earth scientists devote their work to finding more efficient or more effective ways to discover or recover natural resources like petroleum and ores. Plant scientists seeking strains or species of fruiting plants for crops are ultimately working to increase the agricultural output that nutritionally and literally enriches nations. Chemists developing new chemical substances with potential technological applications and physicists developing new phenomena like superconductivity are likewise developing knowledge that may spur economic development. In a world where nations increasingly view themselves as caught up in economic competition, support of such science is nothing less than an investment in the economic future.
Another whole realm of answers lies in humanity's increasing control over our planet and its environment. Much science is done to understand how the toxins and wastes of our society pass through our water, soil, and air, potentially to our own detriment. Much science is also done to understand how changes that we cause in our atmosphere and oceans may change the climate in which we live and that controls our sources of food and water. In a sense, such science seeks to develop the owner's manual that human beings will need as they increasingly, if unwittingly, take control of the global ecosystem and a host of local ecosystems.

Lastly, societies support science because of simple curiosity and because of the satisfaction that comes from knowledge of the world around us. Few of us will ever derive any economic benefit from knowing that the starlight we see in a clear night sky left those stars thousands and even millions of years ago, so that we observe such light as messengers of a very distant past. However, the awe, perspective, and perhaps even serenity derived from that knowledge is very valuable to many of us. Likewise, few of us will derive greater physical well-being from watching a flowing stream and from reflecting on the hydrologic cycle through which that stream's water has passed, from the distant ocean to the floating clouds of our skies to the rains and storms upstream and now to the river channel at which we stand. However, the sense of interconnectedness that comes from such knowledge enriches our understanding of our world, and of our lives, in a very valuable way. By understanding the stars in our sky and the rivers under our bridges, we better understand who we are and our place in the world. When intangible benefits like these are combined with the more tangible ones outlined above, it's no wonder that most modern societies support scientific research for the improvement of our understanding of the world around us.

How Research becomes Scientific Knowledge?
As our friends at Megacorp illustrate, doing research in the lab or in the field may be science, but it isn't necessarily a contribution to knowledge. No one in the scientific community will know about, or place much confidence in, a piece of scientific research until it is published in a peer-reviewed journal. They may hear about new research at a meeting or learn about it through the grapevine of newsgroups, but nothing's taken too seriously until publication of the data.

That means that our ecologist has to write a paper (called a "manuscript" for rather old-fashioned reasons). In the manuscript she justifies why her particular piece of research is significant, she details what methods she used in doing it, she reports exactly what she observed as the results, and then she explains what her observations mean relative to what was already known.

She then sends her manuscript to the editors of a scientific journal, who send it to two or three experts for review. If those experts report back that the research was done in a methodologically sound way and that the results contribute new and useful knowledge, the editor then approves publication, although almost inevitably with some changes or additions. Within a few months (we hope), the paper appears in a new issue of the journal, and scientists around the world learn about our ecologist's findings. They then decide for themselves whether they think the methods used were adequate and whether the results mean something new and exciting, and gradually the paper changes the way people think about the world.

Of course there are some subtleties in this business. If the manuscript was sent to a prestigious journal like Science or Nature, the competition for publication there means that the editors can select what they think are only the most ground-breaking manuscripts and reject the rest, even though the manuscripts are all well-done science. The authors of the rejected manuscripts then send their work to somewhat less exalted journals, where the manuscripts probably get published but are read by a somewhat smaller audience. At the other end of the spectrum may be the South Georgia Journal of Backwater Studies, where the editor gets relatively few submissions and can't be too picky about what he or she accepts into the journal, and not too many people read it. For better or worse, scientists are more likely to read, and more likely to accept, work published in widely-distributed major journals than in regional journals with small circulation.

To summarize, science becomes knowledge by publication of research results. It then may become more general knowledge as writers of textbooks pick and choose what to put in their texts, and as professors and teachers then decide what to stress from those textbooks. Publication is critical, although not all publication is created equal. The more a newly published piece of research challenges established ideas, the more it will be noted by other scientists and by the world in general.


Where is Italy?

Italy is situated on the West Southern border of Europe; the peninsula, along with its sorrounding islands, stretches out southwards almost to the coasts of North Africa, while eastwards it faces the Slav-Balkan territories.

Why Italy?

Italy has played an important role in European higher education: it is one of the four countries that first engaged to create the so-called "European Area of Higher Education" (Sorbonne Declaration, May 1998), thus starting that type of higher education reform which, known as "Bologna Process" (Bologna Declaration, June 1999) is being implemented all over Europe.

Today Italy ranks among the 8 most industrialised countries in the world. Alongside some big companies, both state-owned and private, it has developed a sound network of small and medium-sized undertakings, promoted a few scientific parks, and is incentivating basic and applied research in a great variety of fields (biology, ICT, medicine, physics, etc.).

If you want to know more about Italy you could visit webpage

University of Trento !!!

The University of Trento is one of the youngest Italian Universities. In 1962 the Autonomous Province of Trento founded the Istituto Superiore di Scienze Sociali with the purposes of 'promoting the progress of the social sciences by providing the scientific knowledge and methodological skills, required by those embarking on careers in teaching, scientific research, or activities and professions which require an academic background in the social disciplines'.

In 1972 the Istituto Superiore di Scienze Sociali became the Libera Universitࠤegli Studi di Trento (a private University). The University then had three Faculties: a Faculty of Sociology, a Faculty of Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences, and a Faculty of Economics.

The academic year of 1982-1983 saw inception of the Universitࠓtatale degli Studi di Trento (State University). In the following academic year the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy were opened. The Faculty of Engineering was created in the academic year of 1985-86. In 2004 the seventh Faculty-Cognitive Sciences-was founded.

Phd vacancy in Italy!!!

The Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Trento has 64 PhD positions in the broad ICT (Information and Communication Technology) area, a large portion of which is within the information management and software engineering areas.If someone interest, just go to the school webpage read the detailes.

Good luck!!!

Friday, April 18, 2008

Very nice cartoon-Avatar!

Avatar: The Last Airbender

Water. Earth. Fire. Air. Only the Avatar was the master of all four elements. Only he could stop the ruthless Fire Nation from conquering the world. But when the world needed him most, he disappeared. Until now... On the South Pole, a lone Water Tribe village struggles to survive. It's here that a young Waterbender named Katara and her warrior brother Sokka rescue a strange boy named Aang from a cavernous iceberg. Not only is Aang an Airbender--a race of people no one has seen in a century--but they soon discover that Aang is also the long lost Avatar. Now it's up to Katara and Sokka to make sure Aang faces his destiny to save the tribe--and himself. Did we mention he's only 12?

In a lost age, the world is divided into four nations: Water Tribes, Earth Kingdom, Fire Nation, and Air Nomads. Within each nation, there is a remarkable order of men and women called the "Benders" who can learn to harness their inborn talent and manipulate their native element. Bending is a powerful form combining martial art and elemental magic.

In each generation, only one Bender is solely capable of controlling all four elements. That Bender is the Avatar. The Avatar is the spirit of the world manifests in human form. When the Avatar dies, it reincarnates into the next nation in the cycle. Starting with the mastery of his or her native element, the Avatar learns to bend all four elements. Throughout the ages, the countless incarnations of the Avatar have served to keep the four nations in harmony.

Then, the Firebenders attacked. Just as the world needed the Avatar the most, he mysteriously vanished. A hundred years later, the Fire Nation is near final victory in its ruthless war of world domination. The Air Nomads were destroyed, the Air Temples ravished, and all Airbender monks eradicated. The Water Tribes were raided and driven to the brink of extinction. The Earth Kingdom remains and fights a hopeless war against the Fire Nation. Many believe the Avatar was never reborn into the Air Nomads and the cycle is broken.

In the desolated South Pole, a lone Water tribe struggles to survive. It is here that the village's last remaining Waterbender Katara and her warrior brother Sokka rescue a strange 12-year-old boy named Aang who has been suspended in hibernation in an iceberg. The tribe soon discovers that Aang is not only an Airbender--the extinct race no one has seen in a century--but also the long lost Avatar. Now Katara and Sokka must safeguard the child Avatar in his journey to master all four elements and save the world from the Fire Nation.

Avatar Character List - Avatar: The Last Airbender

Main characters

The Avatar series has been praised for several strong points including character development and depth. All the main characters are portrayed as "marvelously flawed human beings," and the series shone in its initial season with the characterizations of its main antagonists.

Aang (Zach Tyler Eisen) is the fun-loving, 12-year-old protagonist of the series (technically he is 112 years old, due to his being frozen in ice and sustained in the Avatar State for 100 years). He is the current incarnation of the Avatar, the spirit of the planet manifested in human form. As the Avatar, Aang must master all four elements to bring peace to the world and restore the balance between the four Nations. Aang loves to travel the world and is always eager to learn new things. At times he is somewhat naïve of the world and others' true feelings, as he is often too preoccupied with the events immediately surrounding him to notice what occurs on a more in-depth level.

Katara (Mae Whitman) is 14 years old, and the sole remaining Waterbender of the Southern Water Tribe. Katara, along with her brother, Sokka, discovers Aang at the beginning of the series. She and Sokka accompany him on his quest to defeat the Fire Lord and bring peace to the war-torn nations. Katara is mature, loving, and responsible. Always looking out for the well-being of others, she is an apt leader when the situation calls for one. However, she can be overbearing at times, and believes without exception that her way is the right way, never relenting on her views even when they are disproved. Despite Katara's kind nature, she has a temper which, when combined with her impressive waterbending skills and idealistic views, can be quite destructive. After the passing of their mother at the hands of the Fire Nation, Katara took on a motherly role over Sokka, a nature that she later took to in relation to Aang and Toph. As well as waterbending, Katara learns how to use Bloodbending in Book 3, although vows never to use it.

Sokka (Jack DeSena) is a 15-year-old warrior of the Southern Water Tribe who, with his sister Katara, accompanies Aang on his quest to defeat the Fire Lord. Sokka describes himself as "meat-loving" and "sarcastic." Unlike his companions, Sokka cannot bend an element. However, the series frequently grants him opportunities to demonstrate his true gift: ingenuity. He takes great pride in his mental and physical strength, though it is often overshadowed by others' ability to bend. He is extremely clever, relying on science where the mystical and martial arts elude him, though his silly and immature manner often causes others to underestimate his intellect. Instead of mastering an element he is given a chance at mastering a sword, which he does in his own cunning way. His common weapon is a boomerang, and he recently forged his own sword using the metal from a meteorite.

Toph Bei Fong (Jessie Flower) is a 12-year-old, blind Earthbender who leaves her wealthy lifestyle and home to join Aang on his quest in order to teach him earthbending. Toph has largely lived alone all her life due to overprotective parents, which makes her somewhat selfish, sarcastic, and, at times, bitter and arrogant. Even though she always seem to be sarcastic to her friends, she is a very deep thinker. She also does not hesitate to speak her mind and is bluntly truthful. Though blind, Toph "sees" with Earthbending, feeling vibrations in the ground that objects make when they are moving.

Zuko (Dante Basco) is the exiled 16-year-old prince of the Fire Nation. Zuko is obsessed with capturing the Avatar in his quest to restore his honor and redeem himself in the eyes of his father, Fire Lord Ozai. His character matures throughout the show, influenced by his time as an exile, and he becomes less of an overbearing pompous prince and more of an emotional outcast, at times struggling with his feelings of pity and bonding with the same people his nation has terrorized. Zuko's maternal great-grandfather was the previous incarnation of the Avatar, Roku. Zuko often acts coldly, but has revealed himself to be a very caring character as well—a trait most often exhibited in the presence of his Uncle Iroh. Zuko's appearance is well-known due to the scar over his left eye, which he received during a forced Agni Kai with his own father. His regret, hate, and shame were influenced by the loss of his mother. In his father's eyes, Zuko's sister Azula was born lucky while Zuko was lucky to be born. Zuko is currently in a relationship with Mai.

Azula (Grey DeLisle) is the princess of the Fire Nation, Zuko's older sister, and Fire Lord Ozai's pampered favorite child. Azula has been cruel and self-centered her entire life. Her mind is set on war and power; she manipulates and even tortures others to advance her own desires, ignoring family and emotional bonds whenever necessary. As a firebending prodigy with a sadistic personality, Azula is a dangerous Bender. She and Iroh are the only two Firebenders shown who can bend and produce lightning, but Azula is the only one shown who can produce blue fire, which is much hotter than an orange flame. She sees others as expendable, and intimidates her lackeys and all those under her command. Even though she is quite successful at hiding it, she is hurt that her mother always liked Zuko better.

Iroh (Mako in seasons 1 and 2, Greg Baldwin onwards) is a retired Fire Nation general and Prince Zuko's uncle. Iroh is the older brother of Fire Lord Ozai and was the original heir to the throne of the Fire Nation. A powerful Firebender of great renown and respect (he is known as the Dragon of the West), he looks upon Zuko as a son more than as a nephew, especially after the loss of his own son, Lu Ten. On the surface, Iroh is a cheerful and kind old man whose hobbies include drinking tea, playing Pai Sho, and singing. But inside he is a very determined individual who would do anything to protect those he cares about. So far he is the only one shown to know about Zuko's ancestry and destiny. Much older and more experienced than any of the other main characters, Iroh chooses to take a less active role in the affairs of the series, acting as more of a mentor and guide to Zuko and most everyone he meets, including Aang and company.

Secondary characters

Appa (Dee Bradley Baker) is the ten-ton flying bison companion of the Avatar Aang, who was also trapped with him in the iceberg. Being capable of airbending and flying, Appa has been the group's main form of transport in their quest to help Aang, and occasionally assists in battle as well. He is Aang's animal guide, with whom he shares a spiritual connection. Appa is stubborn, uncomfortable when underground, and often irritable, but is gentle, loyal, and very protective of his friends, often losing his temper when confronting someone who is a threat.

Momo (Dee Bradley Baker) is an intelligent and curious Winged Lemur who travels around the world with the group. Momo also loves to eat, and will eat as much as possible when a lot of food is available. He has a tendency to dislike other flying creatures of his size and often picks fights with them. Momo mainly serves as comic relief for the show, but has often played an important role in the plot.

Jet (Crawford Wilson) was a charismatic teen who held a deep grudge against the Fire Nation. He was the leader of the Freedom Fighters, a group of teenagers who spent their days antagonizing Fire Nation soldiers. Later, he decided to start a new life in Ba Sing Se. Jet was brainwashed by Long Feng in his base under Lake Laogai.[28] He is later killed when fatally wounded by a pillar of rock shot by Long Feng.[29] Jet used Twin Tiger-Head hook swords as his weapons.

Long Feng (Clancy Brown) is the intelligent and cunning Grand Secretariat of Ba Sing Se, head of the Dai Li secret police, and advisor to the Earth King. In reality, the Earth King is merely a figurehead of Ba Sing Se's government, as it was actually Long Feng who held the real power, until Azula overthrew him in the final episodes of season 2.

Mai (Cricket Leigh) is an impassive, bored, and mysterious fifteen-year-old girl who, along with Ty Lee, accompanied Princess Azula on her quest to capture Zuko, Iroh, and the Avatar. Mai specializes in throwing weapons, which she conceals in many parts of her clothing. She has a crush on Zuko and, later in the series, the two start dating each other.

Fire Lord Ozai (Mark Hamill) is the ruthless ruler of the Fire Nation, father of Zuko and Azula, younger brother of Iroh. He is leading his country in a century-long war against the other three nations to create an empire and awaits the arrival of Sozin's Comet so that the Fire Nation can utilize its Firebending-enhancing powers to win the war.

Avatar Roku (James Garrett) was the Avatar before Aang, who was born to the Fire Nation. He was best friends with Fire Lord Sozin until the latter revealed his plans for conquest, and died underneath a landslide of an erupting volcano after Sozin left him for dead. Throughout the series, Avatar Roku appears as a spiritual advisor to help Aang fulfill his duties as the Avatar.

Suki (Jennie Kwan) is a fifteen year-old girl, the leader of the young female warriors of Kyoshi Island. She is a tough, skilled fighter, and staunch ally of Aang, Katara, and Sokka. Suki has a close relationship with Sokka. She has not been seen since a duel with Azula.

Ty Lee (Olivia Hack) is a cheerful and energetic 14 year old who, along with Mai, accompanies Princess Azula on her quest to capture Zuko, Iroh, and Aang. Ty Lee is a skilled acrobat who strikes pressure points to disable her opponents. Ty Lee also appears to have a crush on Sokka.

Princess Yue (Johanna Braddy) was the beautiful Princess of the Northern Water Tribe. She is Sokka's second love interest introduced in the series. Yue sacrifices her life to restore the Moon Spirit at the end of Book 1. As a result, she becomes the Moon Spirit herself.

Admiral Zhao (Jason Isaacs) was a hot-tempered Fire Nation admiral in pursuit of the Avatar and Zuko's principal rival throughout Book One. He was killed by the Ocean Spirit after he killed the Moon Spirit and tried to cripple the Northern Water Tribe.

If you want to watch this cartoon,please go to visit the :

Thursday, April 17, 2008

The flower my wife raised!!!

We are the twins !!!
I am always in your site !!!

Sunday, April 13, 2008

My Love!

Darling I believe you you can do anything perfectly.
(That is the drawer my wife and I used in university.We also have another one just front above of that one.It is so beautiful time!!! )

Oh,Darling don't be afraid,I will with you for ever!!!

Wow,darling you are the most beautiful girl in the world!!!

Darling,I am your lifelong loyal company,like a dog!!!

Darling,I am coming!!!

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Those are the foods I like to eat 2.

Ha xorpa!(yang ru tang)

Tawa kavap
Tonur kavap

Tatlik turumlar
Kiyma kavap 2

Koldama (I eat everyday)
Samsa 2

Su usti lagman
Gox nan
Qerin salad

Those are the foods I like to eat.

Tonur kavap.
Kiyma kavap.

Korulgan gox.
Samavar xorpisi!
Zihlik kavap.
Navay wa non
Kavapqi va kavap
Big plate chiken(da pan ji)

Xinjiang University (Sinkiang University,新疆大学)!!!

Xinjiang University(Sinkiang University),What a beautiful!

Two years ago. Oh ,so beautiful time!

The building in the left is my department,I spend there_ beautiful ,unforgetable four years.
The library.(Guess, how high is that building and how many floors it has?)

Night view of library.

Chemistray department.

Picture of Politecnico di Milano(Milan li gong da xue,米兰理工大学)!!!

Main building of Politecnico di Milano,Italy.

Front gate of main campus.It is weekend ,so you can't see anybody.

Front view of the main campus.

Remember this tram number it will help you if you lost.
The big church in Dumo,Milano.

My first big plate chicken!!!

I am working.
Wow,It is amazing I can't believe we did it.

Oh,so delicious!!!